The Numbers

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'''The numbers''' 4, 8, 15, 16, 23 and 42 frequently recurring themes in ''Lost''. Each corresponded with one of the final candidates to replace Jacob as protector of the Island. The numbers also formed the coefficients in an Valenzetti Equation that predicted mankind's extinction. 

==History==
Jacob and his brother, the Man in Black, lived on the Island for over two thousand years. During this time, the two engaged in a rivalry over the nature of humanity. Jacob brought people to the Island in order to test them and prove his view right. However, when it became clear that his brother planned to kill him, Jacob had a new reason to summon castaways to protect the Heart of the Island after his death and to kill the Man in Black. {{crossref}}

Before drawing them, Jacob observed these candidates using a The lighthouse. The lighthouse's mirrors displayed a different candidate's life with each degree that its dial turned. The numbers 4, 8, 15, 16, 23 and 42 corresponded with what turned out to be the final six candidates {{crossref}}
{{I=hatchnumbers.jpg=200=right=The numbers printed on the the Swan's Hatch.}}
4 - John Locke
8 - Hugo "Hurley" Reyes
15 - James "Sawyer" Ford
16 - Sayid Jarrah
23 - Jack Shephard
42 - Jin-Soo Kwon Though the Numbers, as Damon Lindelof put it, "were around LONG before the early '60s,"http//www.avclub.com/articles/ji-yeon,12868/ ''AV Club'' Ji-Yeon Noel Murray; March 13, 2008 mathematician Enzo Valenzetti used them in the 1960s in a mathematical equation. This "Valenzetti Equation" aimed to predict the end of humanity, and the numbers formed its coefficients. The DHARMA Initiative, a scientific venture, conducted research to change one of these coefficients, extending the species's lifespan. {{crossref}} The sequence of numbers formed the serial number of a hatch for a Swan the Initiative built. When they finished the station, they used the numbers as required input for the station Pushing the button. {{crossref}} The Initiative broadcast the numbers from a radio tower on the Island. Thanks to the Island's unusual time flow, Ajira 316's cockpit picked up this signal in 2007, years after it had stopped transmitting, but while the broadcast continued in 1988, it reached the french Bésixdouze expedition, leading them to the island. {{crossref}} {{I=Lotto ticket .jpg=200=left=Hurley's winning lotto ticket.}} Two U.S. Naval personnel, Sam Toomey and Leonard Simms also heard the transmission. Toomey used the numbers to win a contest, and a string of bad luck followed. He eventually killed himself. Simms ended up in a Santa Rosa Mental Health Institute, repeating the sequence continually and saying nothing else. Another inmate, one of the candidates the numbers represented, heard the sequence from Simms, and he, like Sam, used them to win the lottery. Bad luck ensued, and the man, Hugo "Hurley" Reyes, concluded that the numbers were cursed. {{crossref}} A search for the numbers' meaning led Hurley to Australia, and then to the Island. He eventually learned he was a candidate, and ended up serving as Protector of the Island for years. {{crossref}} {{brclear}} == Other occurrences == {{I=SoccerGirls.jpg=200=right=Girls of a soccer team seen in the foreground of one of Hurley's airport flashbacks are wearing jerseys with the Numbers on them}} === All at once === * On the CR 481516-23 42 that Desmond injects into his arm. {{crossref}}, {{crossref}} * On the CR 481516-23 42 that Claire was injected with in the Medical Station. {{crossref}} * When Hurley's car broke down they showed the speedometer (in km/h) go from 16 to 15 to 8 to 4. The dashboard also displayed a temperature of 23 degrees Celsius and 42 km on the odometer. {{crossref}} * When Hugo "Hurley" Reyes' soccer team in the airport, each uniform has one of the Numbers. {{crossref}} * LAPD police car numbers. {{crossref}} {{I=Numbersmeter.jpg=200=right=The numbers appear on the odometer of Hurley's Camaro.}} * The mileage on Hurley's fixed up Camaro displays the numbers, leading to Hurley's running away from his birthday party. {{crossref}} * Eko's stick has the numbers etched on it. * Kate's trial number is 4815162342 {{crossref}} ==== Danielle's papers ==== '''4''' 8 15 16 23 42
4 '''8''' 15 16 23 42
4 8 '''15 16''' 23 42
4 8 15 16 '''23''' 42
4 8 15 16 23 42
4 8 15 16 23 42
4 8 15 16 23 '''42''' {{I=Numbers.jpg=200=right=Numbers written by Danielle.}} 8 is 8th number counting in standard reading format; that is, starting at the top, reading a line left-to-right, then moving to the next line beneath. 15 is 15th, 16 is 16th, 23 is 23rd and 42 is 42nd. If the 4 was a 1 or 7 this would work with all the Numbers. Danielle's numbers map has exactly the same columns and rows (rotated 90°) as a Connect Four board, which was used by Lenny while being questioned by Hurley in the episode 'Numbers'. === Combinations=== *The Oceanic Flight 815's flight number is "815". {{crossref}} *Faraday tells Desmond that his device's settings are "23.342". {{crossref}} *When Widmore gives Locke his passport, the birthdate reads 15 February 48. Widmore then tells Locke if there is anything he needs, dial 23. {{crossref}} ===Single numbers=== ''Please see their respective articles'' {{main}} {{main}} {{main}} {{main}} {{main}} {{main}} === ''The Lost Experience'' === * In the early introduction of Sublymonal.com, 6 blank television screens were seen rotating. They had to be clicked '''4, 8, 15, 16, 23, 42''' times, respectively, to get a clue. * One of Rachel Blake Copenhagen 05's Copenhagen post clues points us to http//www.43things.com 43 Things, where the words to goals ''', 8, 15, 16, 23 and 42''' were the only entries that contained just one word. Together, these words "truth safe reckon copenhagen alvar sumo" formed a secret code that needed to be entered in as a string at Sublymonal.com. * In a Thehansofoundation.org hack, a computer at the Vik Institute displaying the hieroglyphs was shown. After sequence ''', 8, 15, 16, 23 and 42''', each step gave a part of the clue, which ended up solving the DHARMA acronym. == Production notes == In a Lostpedia The Lostpedia InterviewDavid Fury, David Fury (one of the Season 1 writers and co-executive producers) talked about how the Numbers were developed "When I started writing the episode (''Numbers (episode)''), I already figured to use numbers that had been heard on the show… 4 (number of years Locke was in wheelchair); 8, 15 (Flight 815), etc." He also confirmed that the number 42 is a homage to ''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'', and that the original idea to include a set of Numbers which would be important was J.J. Abrams. The original interview does not address 23. (Jack and Rose sat in Row 23 {{crossref}}. The reward for Kate was $23,000. "Exodus" Hurley to Kate "Does 23 mean something to you?") Damon Lindelof did make a comment at Comic Con in 2005 that "We may never know what the Numbers mean." He quickly regretted this, as he got tons of unhappy fan mail demanding to know what he meant exactly. In the Official_Lost_Podcast_transcript/February_13%2C_2006/13/06 podcast, Carlton Cuse tries to explain what Damon meant. In a May, 2008 interview with Kristin Dos Santos, Damon Lindelof furthered his statementshttp//www.eonline.com/gossip/kristin/detail/index.jsp?uuid=30ea40d8-c950-4ae6-af8e-3c7cd60d6384 ''E! Online'' Is Claire Dead? Are They Really Time Traveling? Lost's Bosses Speak! Kirsten Dos Santos May 09 2008 {{Quote='''Damon Lindelof''' There are some questions that are very engaging and interesting, and then there are other questions that we have no interest whatsoever in answering. We call it the midi-chlorian debate, because at a certain point, explaining something mystical demystifies it. To try and have a character come and say, "Here is what the numbers mean," actually makes every usage of the numbers up to that point less interesting. You can actually watch Star Wars now, and when Obi-Wan talks about the Force to Luke for the first time, it loses its luster because the Force has been explained as, sort of, little biological agents that are in your blood stream. So you go, "Oh, I liked Obi-Wan's version a lot better." Which in the case of our show is, "The numbers are bad luck, they keep popping up in Hurley's life, they appear on the island." ... But if you're watching the show for a detailed explanation of what the numbers mean—and I'm not saying you won't see more of them—then you will be disappointed by the end of season six.}} In a 2009 interview with E!, Damon again commented on the Numbers http//uk.eonline.com/uberblog/b122632__lt_i_gt_Lost_lt__i_gt__Redux__Who_Causes_the_Incident_.html {{Quote='''Damon Lindelof''' Here's the story with numbers. The Hanso Foundation that started the DHARMA Initiative hired this guy Valenzetti to basically work on this equation to determine what was the probability of the world ending in the wake of the Cuban Missile Crisis. Valenzetti basically deduced that it was 100 percent within the next 27 years, so the Hanso Foundation started the Dharma Initiative in an effort to try to change the variables in the equation so that mankind wouldn't wipe it itself out.}} * The numbers are visible at the beginning of the current (2008-?) ABC Studios video logo {{I=4-8-15-16.jpg=200=right=The numbers appear at the very beginning...}} {{I=23-42.jpg=200=left=... and a couple of frames later}} == Apophenia in arithmetic == {{main}} If you start adding and subtracting the Numbers you can make up almost any theory that you want. For example; * Boone's accident is in episode 19 (42−23) * Boone dies in the 20th episode (16+4); Claire's baby is born in the same episode * In {{ep}}, Daniel said that the metronome counted 864 (108×8). * 1974 (1+9+7+4=21=42÷2) * There was 324 (108×3) people on Oceanic flight 815. * in {{ep}}, the voice said "Iteration 7294531". (7+2+9+4+5+3+1=31=23+8) * ''LOST'' Final Episode Count Coincidence * ''LOST'' has a total of 121 episodes. 1 + 2 + 1 = 4, a number. *If you count the Missing Pieces to this (121 + 13) = 134 (1 + 3 + 4) then you get 8, another number. In fact any positive natural number can be constructed as follows n = (16 - 15) x n. Which simply requires n additions and as many subtractions. Since zero can also be created by subtracting any of the numbers from itself, all the natural numbers can be created. Since there exists a bijection between the rational and the natural numbers, this means that any rational number can be constructed using only the numbers 15 and 16 in an integer relation. This is why using arithmetic in deciding if a number counts as a reference is a somewhat pointless exercise, with three notable exceptions; *108 (the sum of the Numbers; referenced above in detail) *7418880 (the product of the Numbers, which appeared on the computer screen at the listening station before the discharge). Here, the arithmetic is straightforward, and therefore can be construed as intentional, and beyond coincidence. This follows a general rule laid out by wikipediaOccam's_razor's razor of avoiding needless complexity in order to force connections which do not really exist. === Occurrences outside of the show === At the time the Numbers were first prominently featured in the episode Numbers (episode), The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences did not have any integer sequences which included the Numbers.http//www.research.att.com/~njas/sequences/Seis.html The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequence Two days after the episode aired, the numbers (along with 108) were added to the encyclopedia as "The Lost Numbers".http//oeis.org/A104101 The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences! The Lost Numbers Because of this it is highly unlikely that the Numbers have any real-world mathematical or scientific significance. Since then, however, two more sequences have been added which include the Numbers, https//oeis.org/A122115 A122115 and https//oeis.org/A130826 A130826 At least some of the Numbers are well known as special numbers before the show * 4 is considered to be an unlucky number in Korea. Its pronunciation is the same as the pronunciation for the Chinese character for "death". In the past, elevators were marked with an "F" button instead of "4". * 4, 8, 16 are binary numbers with only one "1" (and are thus powers of two). * The numbers are very similar to the common bit-depths of color on VGA and SVGA (and later) graphics cards for PCs, for example 4-bit (16 color), 8-bit (256 color), 15-bit (32k hi-color), 16-bit (64k hi-color), and then the sequence deviates slightly with 24-bit = 16.7 million color TrueColor, and 32-bit for 24-bit true color with an 8-bit alpha channel. This generates the sequence 4 8 15 16 24 32, only the digits "4" and "3" near the end being swapped. Other common bit depths have existed for different types of displays such as Amiga, but these are the most common on the PC. * 08/15 is a German saying for "ordinary" or "boring", also used as a placeholder on demonstration objects. * 08/15 was the model number of the German standard machine gun during World War I. * The wikipediaLittle_Boy was detonated at 815 a.m. (JST). * 8/15 is Independence Day in Korea. South Korea even has a national soft drink called "815 Soda," or "Pal Il Oh Cola" as it is better known locally. * 8/15 is also Independence Day in India. "Namaste" is a greeting word in Hindi, an official language of India. * 23 is in several conspiracy theories the number of the "Illuminati". It is claimed to appear all over history. * 23 is the only prime number in the sequence. * In the famous science fiction comedy series wikipediaThe_Hitchhiker's_Guide_to_the_Galaxy|''The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy'', 42 is the http//www.google.com/search?q=answer+to+life%2C+the+universe+and+everything answer to life, the universe and everything. ** David Fury has stated that this was the inspiration for selecting 42 as the last number. * Fox Mulder from ''X-Files'' (1993-2002) has one of them as an apartment number and 23 and 42 appear throughout the show. This was one of the most influential science fiction series prior to ''Lost'', and had influence on a number of writers within the genre (and the show, in turn, was influenced by the ''Illuminati'' and ''Hitchhiker's''). * All the Numbers are retired Yankees jersey numbers. (While jersey 42 was not retired specifically by the Yankees, 42 was retired across the league on April 15, 1997 to honor Jackie Robinson.) The other numbers 4 - Lou Gehrig, 8 - Yogi Berra and Bill Dickey, 15 - Thurman Munson, 16 - Whitey Ford, 23 - Don Mattingly. Of special note is Munson, who died in a plane crash. And despite the baseball-wide retirement of 42 for Robinson, the Yankees' star closing pitcher, Mariano Rivera, continues to wear 42 under a grandfather clause because he was using it before 1997. Damon Lindelof and Carlton Cuse are both baseball fans, from their comments in the Official Lost Podcasts. ** Ten other numbers have also been retired by the Yankees. ** Mariano Rivera's 42 will most likely be retired by the Yankees as well. * The computer version of The Impossible Quiz shows the numbers plus 108 in Question 108 as a spin-off. It also appears in Question 50 on both the computer and the iOS version. ===Outside media references=== A reference to some of the Numbers is often made in other shows, movies, or pop culture that post-dated ''Lost'', very frequently a tribute to the show {{main}} ===Natural occurrences=== * 42, 16 are the latitude of University of Michigan, MI (42 16 N), the city from which the DHARMA Initiative had its roots. * Not found in the first 1,000,000,000 digits of pi. Interestingly, 481516234'''3''' can be found at the 176,025,488th position of pi http//www.angio.net/pi/bigpi.cgi?UsrQuery=4815162343, and 481516234'''1''' begins at the 734,468,718th position. * Latitude 4.815, Longitude 162.342 are the GPS coordinates that lead to a point in the Pacific Ocean (see Mapquest http//www.mapquest.com/maps/map.adp?searchtype=address&formtype=latlong&latlongtype=decimal&latitude=4.815&longitude=162.342 or Google Earth http//www.alder-digital.de/earth.php?lat=4.815&long=162.342 or Google Maps http//maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=4.815+n+162.342+w the former requires Google Earth being installed) * Looking on Google Maps, 151.6 miles due east of latitude 4.815n, longitude 162.342w, you will find a small island with no discernible features of note (it is called "Manounou", and its coordinates are 4.8n, 160.4w; 4+8+1+6+4=23). Continue 108 miles due southeast of that island, and you will find Tabuaeran, also called "Fanning Island" http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tabuaeran which can be found at 4n, 160w http//maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=3.904+n+159.388+w * They appear in a mathematical relationship to the Flavius-Josephus sieve. The appear in the on-line encyclopedia of integer sequences as A130826https//oeis.org/A130826, which defines it as "a(n) is the smallest number such that twice the number of divisors of (a(n)-n)/3 gives the n-th term in the first differences of the sequence produced by the Flavius-Josephus sieve". This sieve locates "lucky" numbershttp//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucky_number. Josephus Flavius http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josephus was a 1st century Jewish historian. * The Numbers also appear in the sequence defined by the function ''x(-3+2x+5x2+7x3+8x4)/(1-x-x3-x5)''. http//oeis.org/A122115 ===Miscellaneous real world occurrences=== {{I=Lost-numbers-lottery-slice.jpg=right=200=Mega Millions Left, and Hurleys ticket right.}} * Coincidence, the winning lottery numbers in the Irish national lottery were very close to the Numbers, at 4 8 15 16 23 24 (last number reversed digits) on 11/16/2005 (after the show had begun)http//www.lotto.ie/prizes_results/prizes.asp?date=11/11/2005&draw_date=Nov+19+2005. Because of the increasing popularity of the show, the Numbers are one of the most frequently played number sets in lotteries in recent years. http//www.tvsquad.com/2005/06/19/lost-numbers-not-so-lucky/ ** On 6 and 10 September 2009, the numbers 4, 15, 23, 24, 35 and 42 were drawn, twice in a row, in the Bulgarian lottery http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8259801.stm. Nobody won the top prize in the first draw, but a record 18 people guessed all six numbers in the 10 September draw. * The numbers being repeated by the radio tower resembles real-world WikipediaNumbers stations. *The Numbers appeared as co-ordinates in the real-life adventure game, Secret Agent Clank, where the main character doesn't recognize them. Somebody also states that the co-ordinates (being the Numbers) "are lucky numbers". * In January 2011 the numbers 4-8-15-25-47 with a mega ball number of 42 were pulled in the New York Mega Millions lottery. Damon Lindelof tweeted that 9078 Lost fans had won $150 each. * According to one estimate, the world population on the morning of May 21, 1984 was 4,815,162,342.http//galen.metapath.org/popclk.html Galen Huntington Human Population * The first man in space, Yuri Gagarin, orbited the earth for 108 minutes. *Damon Lindelof tweeted a picture of the numbers on a Mega Millions ticket he played for the world record $640 million jackpot on March 30, 2012. https//twitter.com/#!/DamonLindelof/statuses/185806051357097984 Damon plays the Numbers *In September 2012 the numbers 4-7-8-15-16-42 and bonus number of 23 were pulled in loto6(Japanese lottery).They won $723http//b.hatena.ne.jp/articles/201209/10450 ロト6の配当金、2等が3等より少ない“珍事”発生 原因は海外ドラマ「LOST」?. == Unanswered questions == {{NavMinor-Unanswered}} *Why do they cause bad luck to anyone who uses them? * How can they be changed, if at all? * Outside of Jacob's use of the numbers on the cave wall, is their use on and off the island random, intentional or fated? * Why where the numbers broadcasting from the radio tower in the first place? == See also == * Apophenia * Easter eggs == External links == * http//lost.cubit.net/numbers.php Fan list of occurrences of the Numbers in the show * http//thelostnumbers.blogspot.com/ Fan list of occurrences of the Numbers in the show * https//oeis.org/A104101 On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences entry * http//maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&geocode=&q=4.815+-+162.342+&ie=UTF8&ll=4.724252,-162.27356&spn=2.50164,5.097656&t=h&z=8&iwloc=addr&om=0 4.815 - 162.342 at Google Maps ===References=== {{reflist}} {{Nav-Numbers}} {{DEFAULTSORTNumbers}} arالأرقام daNumbers deDie Zahlen esLos Números frNombres itI numeri nlDe Nummers plLiczby ptOs Números ruЧисла zh數字 CategoryNumbers CategoryCodes CategoryRecurring Themes Category4, 8, 15, 16, 23, 42